Please consider to submit a contribution to either session by 13 January 2021 at 13:00 CET.
OS1.6 Drivers and impacts of the Southern Ocean exchange, export and storage of heat and carbon under past, present and future climates
The Southern Ocean is a key region for the vertical and lateral exchanges of heat, carbon, and nutrients, with significant past and potential future impacts on the global climate system. However, the role of the Southern Ocean as a sink of anthropogenic carbon and heat, and as a source of natural carbon remains uncertain. Indeed, observations of many aspects of this system are still sparse and the ability to model the complex dynamics governing the air-sea exchange, export and storage of heat and carbon is limited, resulting in large climate projection uncertainties.
To address these knowledge gaps the Southern Ocean has been the subject of recent large-scale observational, theoretical and modelling investigations by several national and international programmes, including SOCCOM, the UK ORCHESTRA and RoSES, and the H2020 programme SO-CHIC, complimented by the IODP and other drilling programmes. These and other large scale efforts such as the CMIP6 simulations have provided insight into the processes governing the Southern Ocean heat and carbon exchanges, their spatial patterns and trends on subannual, multi-decadal and millennial timescales, as well as their potential future modifications under a changing climate.
This session welcomes contributions dealing with the physical, biogeochemical and ecological processes driving the air-sea exchange, export, and storage of heat and carbon in the Southern Ocean under past, present, and future climates. These include (but are not limited to) interior ocean mixing, water mass transformation and transport pathways, the cycling of carbon and nutrients, as well as ocean-ice-atmosphere interactions and fluxes. The session will also discuss the wider implications of changing Southern Ocean heat and carbon exchanges for the lower latitudes and for the global climate.
Conveners: Andrew Meijers, Cara Nissen, Lavinia Patara, Chris Turney
Solicited speakers: Judith Hauckand Thomas Fröhlicher
OS1.7 Under cover: The Southern Ocean’s connection to sea ice and ice shelves
In recent years the interaction between the ocean and the cryosphere in the Southern Ocean has become a major focus in climate research. Antarctic climate change has captured public attention, which has spawned a number of research questions, such as: Is Antarctic sea ice becoming more vulnerable in a changing climate? What controls the inflow of warm water into ice shelf cavities and what is the impact of enhanced meltwater outflow? What role do ice processes play in nutrient upwelling on the shelf? Recent advances in observational technology, data coverage, and modeling provide scientists with a better understanding of the mechanisms involving ice-ocean interactions in the far South. Processes on the Antarctic continental shelf have been identified as missing links between the cryosphere, the global atmosphere and the deep open ocean that need to be captured in large-scale and global model simulations.
This session calls for studies on physical and biogeochemical interactions between ice shelves, sea ice and the ocean. The ice-covered Southern Ocean and its role in the greater Antarctic climate system are of major interest. This includes work on all scales, from local to basin-scale to circumpolar. Studies based on in-situ observations and remote sensing as well as regional to global models are welcome. We particularly invite cross-disciplinary topics involving physical and biological oceanography, glaciology or biogeochemistry.
Conveners: Torge Martin, Xylar Asay-Davis, Kaitlin Naughten, Ralph Timmermann